Radiology medical imaging is a technique and the process used to create images of the human body parts and function thereof for clinical purposes (medical procedures seeking to release , diagnose or examine disease) or medical science (including the study of usual anatomy and physiology).A Radiologic Technologist, also called as medical radiation technologist and as radiographer, carry out imaging of the human body for diagnosis or treating medical problems. The common subjects of in Anatomy, Physiology, Pathology, Microbiology, Surgery & Medicine taught in the 1st year will prepare the student to understand the type of disease. The hands on experience in the department of Radiology from day one onwards will enable the student to understand the type of the disease beginning with routine imaging to CT and MRI scans. The students will receive excellent and exhaustive training in these fields to be able to assist senior radiologists.
Track1.2 Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI)
Track1.3 Nuclear medicine
Track1.6 Photoacoustic imaging
Track1.9 Functional near-infrared spectroscopy
Track1.10 Magnetic Particle Imaging
Anticancer drugs have a high promising pipeline, strong prevalence and incidence rate of the cancer, increased in government funding, spur in cancer awareness programs, developed healthcare infrastructure etc. are few of the causes propelling the growth of the market during the forecast period. Furthermore, prevalence of unhealthy lifestyle, acceptance of innovative or advanced cancer technology, rise in awareness in developed countries etc. are the causes attributed to the growth of market. However these medicines attract high cost, have major side effects which can restrain the growth of the global anticancer drugs market throughout 2025.
Anticancer drugs Market: Geographical and Competitive Dynamics: Geographically, the global anticancer drugs market has been segmented into five areas: North America, Europe, Asia Pacific, Latin America and Middle East & Africa. In addition, the regions and fields have been further divided by major countries from each region. The report also profiles major players in the anticancer drugs market based on various attributes likewise company overview, financial overview, SWOT analysis, key business strategies, product portfolio, and modern developments. Key companies profiled in the report include F. Hoffmann-La Roche Ltd, Eli Lilly and Company, CELGENE CORPORATION, Novartis AG, Pfizer Inc, Amgen Inc, Bayer AG, AstraZeneca, Takeda Pharmaceutical Company Limited, Merck & Co., Inc. etc.
Pediatric radiology (or pediatric radiology) is a subspecialty of radiology involving the imaging of ,infants, children, and young adults. Mostly pediatric radiologists practice at children's hospitals. Pediatric radiology comes with many issues. Unlike adults, children cannot always understand a change of environment. Therefore, staffs are basically required to wear colorful uniforms, usually 'scrubs', as opposed to a normal hospital uniform. It is also important to recognize that when a child is unwell, they follow their capacity which is usually to cry and stay close to their parents. This presents a huge challenge or problem for the radiographer, who must try to gain the child's trust and get their co-operation. Once co-operation has been achieved there is another big issue of keeping the child still for their imaging test. This can be very difficult for children in a lot of pain. Coercion and assistance from parents is usually enough to achieve this, however, in some extreme cases (for example MRI and CT), it may be necessary to sedate the child.
Pediatric Radiology informs its readers of new findings and advances in all fields of pediatric imaging and in related fields. This is retained by a blend of original papers, and reviews describing the present state of knowledge in a particular topic. Contents consist advances in technology, methodology, apparatus and auxiliary equipment are presented, and changes of standard techniques.
A list of the radiology industry’s most new achievements: Since its discovery in the 19th century, the field of radiology has speedily grown to enhance treatment for millions of people. Advance technologies and better practices have made the field safer, less expensive, and more efficient. To celebrate the industry’s innovation, a list of the field’s most recent achievements has been organized.
The field of Radiology has rapidly enhanced with few many new characterstics:
(a) The use of lead aprons patented drugs, improved patient positioning can reduce the radiation subjection, during scanning.
(b) Ultrasound, this new technology remote viewing systems not only monitor pregnancy but also used for echocardiograms, bone sonometry, and abdominal imaging. This new systems can detect breast cancer as well as prostate cancer, liver, kidney, pancreatic & bladder.
(c) PET Scans, combined with CT to identify cancer much earlier with a broad visible image which gives more information regarding patient rather than traditional scan.
(d) In the newest CT Angiography, the process is much faster, safer & less expensive. In latest CT angiogram, the process take 10-25 minutes without all the risk. It can be used for arteries in the lungs, kidneys, arms and legs.
(e) Digital Mammography has proven most effective in case of breast cancer detection .A study has proven that digital mammogram are more accurate in diagnosting breast cancer in women aging under 50, premenopausal women.
Screening is helpful for the doctors to find & treat cancer at early stages. At the early stages, cancer cells are simplest to treat but according to time cancer cells begun to spread and harder to treat. Some cancer screening tests are Colonoscopy, sigmoidoscopy, and high-sensitivity faecal occult blood tests (FOBTs), small -dose helical computed tomography, Mammography, Pap test and human papillomavirus (HPV) testing. Others Screening tests are Alpha-feto protein blood test, Breast MRI, CA-125 test, PSA test, Virtual colonoscopy.
Cancer is a kind of disease in which cells segmented abnormally, without any control. It can spreads all over the body also in the lymph as well as blood systems. It is estimated that higher than 72% worldwide populations are having Cancer. Now a days 30-50% cancers can be prevented or cured. On avoiding some unrequired factors Like Tobacco, Alcohol, carcinogenic products, overweight, obesity, ionizing radiation, and infectious infection actually can prevent the cancer. Sufficient healthy diet & Proper exercise is also very needed.
Track 6.1 Localized cancer Screening
Track 6.2 Infection Control
Researchers has bring 1 new concept like Chemoprevention, medicines which use to treat precancerous conditions and have to keep cancer from ever developing.
Tumour immunology explain the interaction between cells of the immune system with tumour cells. To understand these interactions is important for the development of new therapies for cancer treatment. The existence of particular anti-tumor immunity implies that tumors must express antigens that are identified as foreign by the host. The earliest categorization of tumor antigens was based on their patterns of expression. Antigens that are demonstrate on tumor cells but not on normal cells are known as tumor-specific antigens; some of these antigens are unique to individual tumors, whereas others are shared included tumors of the same type.Immunotherapy for Tumors-The main reason for interest in an immunologic approach is that most current therapies for cancer rely on drugs that kill dividing cells or block cell division, and these treatments have harmful effects on normal proliferating cells. As a result, the treatment of cancers causes significant morbidity and mortality. Immune responses to tumors may be specific for tumor antigens and will not injure most of the normal cells. Therefore, immunotherapy has the potential of being the most tumor-specific treatment that can be devised.
Track 7.1 Products of Mutated Genes
Track 7.2 Abnormally Expressed but Unmutated Cellular Proteins
Track 7.3 Antigens of Oncogenic Viruses
Track 7.4 Oncofetal Antigens
Track 7.5 Altered Glycolipid and Glycoprotein Antigens
Track 7.6 Tissue-Specific Differentiation Antigens
Cancer medical specialty is a knowledge base segment of biology that's involved with understanding the role of the system within the progression and development of cancer; the foremost well-known application is cancer therapy which utilizes the system as a treatment for cancer. Cancer immunosurveillance and immunoediting are assisted protection against development of tumors in animal systems and detection of targets for immune recognition of human cancer. Resistance towards the cancer drugs is a challenge and a big issue today. Researchers are making advancement on that but No cancer treatment is 100% effective against cancers. But the resistance of cancer drugs results from a variety of factors for ex- somatic cell differences in tumors, main common reason for resistance of anticancer drugs is an expression of one or more energy-dependent transporters which detect and eject anticancer drugs from cells, but other mechanisms of resistance including insensitivity to drug-induced apoptosis and induction of drug-detoxifying mechanisms majorly play an important role to get anticancer drug resistance.
Vaccines or vaccinations are medicines that help the immune system to identify and destroy the cancer cells. Most of the cancer vaccine work in a same way to treat the cancer. Cancer treatment vaccines are little bit different from vaccines which work against the viruses. Various types of cancer vaccines are Antigen vaccine, Whole-cell vaccine, dendritic cell vaccines, DNA Vaccines, anti-idiotype vaccine. There are other types also of cancer vaccines that are under clinical trials not yet approved in the US to treat cancer.
A case report is a detailed report of the symptoms, signs, detection for the treatment of a patient on the basis of the cancer clinical trial . Some case reports are professional narratives which provide feedback on clinical guidelines and offer a framework or outley for early signs of effectiveness, adverse events and cost. Some of case reports are as unique or rare features of diseases, an unexpected association between diseases and symptoms. A case report is basically considered a type of anecdotal evidence. Case report defines many aspects of the patient. A case report gives an exact convention by rendering their important clinical cases of late occurrence. After Studying from medical cases will get valuable information for the students and Paramedical researchers.
Radiation accidents involves medical uses have accounted for more acute radiation deaths in comparison to other source. Radiation accidents take place due to lack of alertness and Awareness, lack to follow the procedures step and checks, lack of qualified and well-trained staff. Prevention of accidents in radiotherapy involves applying various layers of curative actions, addressing this issue at different levels like Application of safety-technology and procedures.Radiation therapy is generally applied to the cancer tumor because of its ability to control cell growth. Ionizing radiation works on the principle of damaging the DNA of cancerous tissue leading to cellular death. To spare normal tissues (such as skin or organs by which radiation must pass through to treat the tumor), shaped radiation beams are aimed from various angles of exposure to intersect at the tumor, providing a much higher absorbed dose there than in the surrounding, healthy tissue. Besides the tumor itself, the radiation fields may also include the draining lymph nodes if they are clinically logically involved with tumor, or if there is thought to be a risk of subclinical malignant enancement. It is necessary to consist a margin of normal tissue around the tumor to allow for uncertainties in daily set-up and internal tumor movement. These uncertainties can be caused by internal movement (for intance, respiration and bladder filling) and movement of external skin marks related to the tumor position.Track 10.1 Failures in equipment design and design testing
Track 10.2 Operational safety testing
Track 10.3 Operational quality control
Track 10.4 Operational procedures and departmental management
Track 10.5 Lack of communication within and between radiotherapy departments
Computed tomography (CT) is an imaging process which uses special x-ray equipment to create detailed pictures, of inside the body. It is also known as computerized tomography and computerized axial tomography (CAT).
Track 11.1 Computer Tomography (CT) Safety During Pregnancy
Track 11.2 Coronary Computed Tomography Angiography (CCTA)
Track 11.3 CT Angiography (CTA)
Track 11.4 CT ColonographyTrack 11.5 CT Enterography
Track 11.6 CT Perfusion of the Head
Track 11.7 Dental Cone Beam CT
Track 11.8 Discography (Discogram)
Track 11.9 Radiation Dose in X-Ray and CT Exams
Track 11.10 Urography
Magnetic resonance imaging is a medical imaging process which is generally used in radiology to create pictures of the anatomy and the physiological processes of the body in both types either health or disease. MRI scanners use highly strong magnetic fields, magnetic field gradients, and radio waves to produce images of the organs in the body. MRI never involve X-rays or the use of ionizing radiation, which distinguishes it from CT or CAT scans and PET scans. Magnetic resonance imaging is a type of medical application of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). NMR can also be used for imaging in other NMR applications like NMR spectroscopy.
Track 12.1 NMR spectroscopy
Track 12.2 Magnetic resonance spectroscopy
Track 12.3 Real-time MRI
Track 12.4 Interventional MRI
Track 12.5 Magnetic resonance guided focused ultrasound
Track 12.6 Multinuclear imaging
Track 12.7 Molecular imaging by MRI
Mammography also known as mastography is a technoique of using low-energy X-rays commonly around 30 kVp to determine the human breast for diagnosis and screening. The main aim of mammography is the early diagnostic of breast cancer, typically via detection of featured masses or microcalcifications.
As with all X-rays, mammograms use doses of ionizing radiation to produce images. These images are then examined for abnormal findings. It is common to employ lower-energy X-rays, typically Mo (K-shell x-ray energies of 17.5 and 19.6 keV) and Rh (20.2 and 22.7 keV) in comparison to those which are used for radiography of bones. Ultrasound, ductography, positron emission mammography (PEM), and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) are add- on to mammography. Ultrasound is basically used for further evaluation of masses found on mammography or a type of palpable masses not seen on mammograms. Ductograms are still used in some institutions to examination of bloody nipple discharge when the mammogram is non-diagnostic. MRI can be helpful for further evaluation of questionable findings, as well as for screening pre-surgical diagnostic in patients with known breast cancer, in order to examine additional lesions that might change the surgical approach, for instance, from breast-conserving lumpectomy to mastectomy. Other process being investigated include tomosynthesis.
Track 13.1 Stereotactic biopsy
Track 13.2 3D Mammography
Clinical oncology consists of three primary division : medical oncology the treatment of cancer with medicine, consisting chemotherapy, surgical oncology the surgical aspects of cancer including biopsy, staging, and surgical abscission. of tumors and radiation oncology the treatment of cancer with therapeutic .
An oncology nurse is a expertise nurse who cares for cancer patients. These nurses generally requires advanced certifications and clinical experiences in oncology further than the unique bachelorette nursing program provides. Oncology nursing care can be explained as meeting the several needs of oncology patients during the time of their disease including exact screenings and other preventative practices, symptom management, care to retain as much basic functioning as possible, and encouraging steps upon end of life.
Clinical medicine is a field of medicine which deals primarily with the practice and study of medicine based on the direct evaluation of the patient. In clinical medicine, medical practitioners examine patients in order to diagnose, treat, and prevent disease.
Alternative malignant growth medicines may not assume an instant job in relieving your disease, yet they may able to adapt to signs and indications caused by malignancy and disease medications. Regular signs and side effects, for instance, tension, exhaustion, and retching, torment, trouble dozing, and stress might be diminished by alternative medicines.
Coordinating the best of proof based corresponding and alternative malignant growth medications with the medicines you get from your expertise may help ease a significant number of the side effects related with disease and its treatment. Detection the majority of your alternatives with your specialist and together you can figure out which methodologies may work for you and which are probably going to have no advantage.
Work intimately with your specialist to decide the correct harmony between conventional meds and alternative cancer medicines. While correlative and alternative disease medicines, for instance, needle therapy, may decrease queasiness or torment, they for the most part aren't sufficiently amazing to supplant malignant growth drugs from your specialist.There is an abundance of various alternative treatments on offer for cancer.
Track 18.1 Antioxidants
Track 18.2 Vitamins
Track 18.3 Mineral supplements
Track 18.4 Herbal Remedie
In multiple myeloma, a type of white blood cell known a plasma cell multiplies unusually. Normally, they make antibodies which fight against infections. But in multiple myeloma, they release too much protein (known as immunoglobulin) into your bones and blood. It builds up throughout your body and generally causes organ damage.
The plasma cells also crowd normal blood cells in your bones. They release chemicals which trigger other cells to dissolve bone. The weak areas of bone this creates are known as lytic lesions. As multiple myeloma gets worse, those plasma cells start to spill out of your bone marrow and spread through your body, it will cause more organ damage.
Track 19.1 Blood tests
Track 19.2 Histopathology
Thalassemias are generally genetically inherited blood disorders characterized by abnormal hemoglobin production. Symptoms commonly depend on the type and can vary from none to severe. Often there is mild to severe anemia less no. of red blood cells. Anemia leads result in feeling tired and pale skin. There may also be bone issues, an enlarged spleen, yellowish skin, and dark urine. Slow growth may occur in children normally.
Thalassemias are genetic disorders transfer from a person's parents. There are 2 types, alpha thalassemia and beta thalassemia.The severity of alpha and beta thalassemia depends on how many of the 4 genes for alpha globin or 2 genes for beta globin are missing. Detection is typically by blood tests including a complete blood count, special hemoglobin tests, and genetic tests. Detection may occur before birth through prenatal testing.
Track 20.1 Alpha-thalassemias
Track 20.2 Beta-thalassemia
Track 20.3 Delta-thalassemia
Track 20.4 Combination hemoglobinopathies
Epidemiology is the study and the examination of the distribution and determinants of health and disease conditions in described populations. It is the important quality of public health, and shapes policy decisions and evidence-based practice by examining risk factors for disease and targets for preventive healthcare. Epidemiologist’s help with study design, collection, and statistical evaluation of data, amend interpretation and dissemination of results. Epidemiology is also play an imp. Role to develop methodology used in clinical research, public health studies, and, to a lesser extent, general research in the biological sciences. Major areas of epidemiological study consist disease causation, transmission, outbreak investigation, disease surveillance, environmental epidemiology, forensic epidemiology, occupational epidemiology, screening, bio monitoring, and comparisons of therapy effects same as in clinical trials. Epidemiologists rely on other scientific disciplines like biology to better explanation of disease processes, statistics to make systematic use of the data and draw appropriate conclusions, social sciences to better explain proximate and distal causes, and engineering for exposure assessment.
Track 21.1 Case series
Track 21.2 Case-control studies
Track 21.3 Cohort studies
Track 21.4 Outbreak investigation
Head and Neck cancers comprise a real challenge for oncologists across the globe, with one person dying every hour of every day. It can deform and disfigure the face, strip away the voice and hold up one of his basic abilities to eat, drink and swallow. The psychosocial impact can be extremely devastating. From previously being considered a homogenous entity, it is now a very well recognized fact that Head and Neck cancer is rightly known “Head and neck cancers” in view of their genetic and molecular heterogeneity despite sharing histological and etiological homogeneity. The present review discusses recent insights as well as highly organized principles of the molecular biology of Head and Neck Cancers.
Track 22.1 Genetic factors contributing to increased risk of carcinogenesis
Track 22.2 Genetic cancer syndromes
Carcinoma of the tonsil is a type of squamous cell carcinoma. The tonsil is the main common site of squamous cell carcinoma in the oropharynx. The tumors mainly present at advanced stages, and around 70% of patients present with metastasis to the cervical lymph nodes . The most reported complaints include sore throat, otalgia or dysphagia. Some patients have complain of feeling the presence of a lump in the throat.
Track 23.1 Staging
Track 23.2 HPV status
Track 23.3 Lymphatic Infiltration
Neuro-oncology is the branch of medical science which leads the study of brain and spinal cord neoplasms, many of which are very dangerous and life-warning astrocytoma, glioma, glioblastoma multiforme, ependymoma, pontine glioma, and brain stem cell tumors more are the main examples of these. Moreover the malignant brain cancers, gliomas of the brainstem and pons, glioblastoma multiforme, and high-grade astrocytoma are the worst type of cancer. In these type of cases, untreated survival usually amounts to only a few months, and survival with current radiation and chemotherapy medications may extend that time from around a year to a year and a half, possibly 2 or more, depending on the patient's condition, immune function, therapies used, and the specific type of malignant brain neoplasm. Surgery may in some cases be curative therapy, but, as a general rule, malignant brain cancers leads to regenerate and emerge from remission easily, especially highly malignant cases. In these type of cases, the goal is to excise as much of the mass and as much of the tumor margin as possible without endangering vital functions or other important cognitive abilities.
Track 24.1 Diagnostic imaging of the brain and spinal cord
Track 24.2 Lumbar puncture and cerebrospinal fluid analysis
Track 24.3 Pathologic diagnosis
Glioblastoma, also known as glioblastoma multiforme (GBM), is the most aggressive type of cancer that start within the brain. Initially, signs and symptoms of glioblastoma are non-specific. They may comprise headaches, personality changes, nausea, and symptoms same to those of a stroke. Worsening of symptoms often is rapid or so fast. This may progress to unconsciousness.
The cause of most cases is unclear or nondiagnostic. Uncommon risk factors consist genetic disorders such as neurofibromatosis and Li–Fraumeni syndrome, and previous radiation treatment. Glioblastomas represent 15% of brain cancers. They generally can either start from normal brain cells or develop from an existing low-grade astrocytoma.
Track 25.1 Tumor markers
Track 25.2 TNM staging
Track 25.3 CT scans
Track 25.4 MRI
DNA repair is a process by which a cell detects and corrects damage to the DNA molecules which encode its genome. In human cells, both normal metabolic activities and environmental factors likewise radiation can cause DNA damage, which results in as many as 1 million individual molecular lesions per cell per day. Many of these lesions cause structural damage to the DNA molecule and can alter the cell's ability or function to transcribe the gene that the affected DNA encodes. Other lesions induce harmful mutations in the cell's genome, which affect the survival of its daughter cells after it undertake mitosis.
Track 26.1 DNA repair defects in cancer
Track 26.2 Epigenetic DNA repair defects in cancer
Track 26.3 Frequencies of epimutations in DNA repair genes
Track 26.4 Genome-wide distribution of DNA repair in human somatic cells
Endometrial cancer is a type of cancer which arises from the endometrium (the lining of the uterus or womb). It leads to the result of the abnormal growth of cells that have the ability to spread to other parts of the body. The 1st sign is most often vaginal bleeding not associated with a menstrual period. Other symptoms include pain with urination, and during sexual intercourse. Endometrial cancer occurs commonly after menopause.
Track 27.1 Endometrioid adenocarcinoma
Track 27.2 Serous carcinoma
Track 27.3 Clear cell carcinoma
Track 27.4 Mucinous carcinoma
Track 27.5 Mixed or undifferentiated carcinoma.